Water contamination and its purification to ensure a healthy life is not only important but also is now a global concern. To accomplish this problem newer techniques and technologies are being developed for the management and accessibility of potable water. It demands a technology that is versatile in terms of elimination spectrum for various contaminants and biodegradability. Purification and recycling of waste water from industrial, rural and urban sources can be one of the prime alternatives to overcome water scarcity. Hence there is a pressing need for development of systems that are in sync with the demand for water recycling not only in industries but also in households. Therefore, the major outcome of this work is to devise a system that is economical, environment friendly (biodegradable), meets industrial standards, user friendly and a good substitute for processes currently being used for water treatment and purification. The system is developed as smart biodegradable composite material which involves the use of polymers and their nanoforms for enhanced water remediation. These nanomaterials as smart biodegradable composites are made up of natural polymers which are grafted with the chemically modified polymers and have ability to change their state at a defined temperature. These novel composites precipitate out of the solution when heated above a certain temperature which enables them to adsorb various impurities onto their surface while precipitating out of solution. All the composites have been characterized by various chemical and spectroscopic techniques and have been screened for their abilities to extract impurities such as organic, herbicides, pesticides, textile dyes, antibiotics & metal ions using sophisticated analytical techniques. The wide spectrum of efficiency to remove all the contaminants in one go is due to the synergistic combination of two materials that in individual capacity have a great efficiency to eliminate either organic or inorganic pollutants from water. It has also been established that the composites are completely reusable, recyclable that extract and eliminate industrial, agricultural and house hold impurities with minimum operating costs and moving parts. Thus, the operation with minimum energy requirement, lesser maintenance and higher degree of treatment marques the composites as ideal alternatives to the current technologies being practiced for water purification.